Musl, pronounced simillar to the word mussel or muscle, are a libc, an utilization of the regular library efficiency explained inside the ISO C and POSIX requirements, plus typical extensions, built on the surface of the Linux process dubs API.

Musl, pronounced simillar to the word mussel or muscle, are a libc, an utilization of the regular library efficiency explained inside the ISO C and POSIX requirements, plus typical extensions, built on the surface of the Linux process dubs API.

And the kernel controls having access to components, storage, filesystems, and the benefits for being able to access these information, libc is responsible for:

creating C bindings the OS user interface

building higher-level buffered stdio, storage allocation control, bond development and synchronization businesses, discussed library loading, and so on making use of lower-level interfaces the kernel delivers

applying the natural collection patterns of this C code like strstr , snprintf , strtol , exp , sqrt , etc.

musl have historical past and advancement roots going back to 2005, but ended up being called and initially circulated as musl last year, as an alternative to glibc and uClibc with a driven mission to generally meet the needs of both very small embedded devices and normal personal desktop computers and computers.

Since 2012, musl might accredited in permissive MIT permit.

Secret Ideas

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User Friendliness

The easier and simpler code is actually, the a lesser amount of room it has for insects, along with cheaper it really is to generate key variations if they’re needed. Efficiency does lead normally to optimal code size and reasonably-good abilities. musl prefers easy algorithms over more technical sort unless there is a compelling purpose to accomplish normally. musl in addition favors reducing decisive link abstractions, trying to keep rule as self-contained/uncoupled as you are able to. This tends to make it legible (although at times heavy) and size-efficient once static-linked.

Source ability

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Scaling nicely “as n goes toward 0” can question the same amount of if not more than scaling “as n visits ?”. Build surrounding this standard started with embedded and low-end personal desktop computers in your mind, but finished up holding musl (and similar distributions) to prominence during the container deployment trend.

Considering lack of big inner coupling between libc products, fixed back linking with musl draws in very little laws about the product isn’t actually utilizing. Minimal static-linked binaries are under 10 kB of signal, in spite of thread, even of good use services may under 50 kB.

The standard of lowest continual expense pertains to runtime website consumption aswell. libc’s own global records dimensions are kept no more than conceivable – under 8k, and likely significantly less whenever static connecting. For compelling back linking, all efficiency is within one particular provided archive document (not are divided across libm , libpthread , librt , etc.) to make certain that there isn’t any per-component storage and startup your time overhead.

A part of musl’s scaling “as n goes to 0” would be the capacity to run-on lightweight piles, generating layouts including a lot of post practical despite resource-constrained circumstances.

Awareness of correctness

musl had been one Linux libc having mutexes safe inside reference-counted pieces, the first to bring condvars just where newly-arrived waiters are not able to grab wake activities from preceding waiters, while the 1st having doing work line cancellation without rush conditions creating resource-leak or double-close. These types of include needs associated with the specifications which avoided by other implementations, and receiving them correct am a consequence of mindful studying of the specifications.

musl’s whole development traditions continues a procedure of checking out needs, searching for clarifications whenever place cases are not effectively covered, and proceeding with extreme caution as soon as using functionality undoubtedly underspecified.

Basic safety under site tiredness

An element of correctness is certainly not getting yourself into an awful circumstance with no answer. musl usually reserves assets for a procedure before investing in it, mount down if resources aren’t readily available. Low-memory or some other useful resource exhaustion environment should never be lethal; they truly are always noticed (supposing a no-overcommit program setting) at a place wherein they may be stated, permitting the application to control them because it considers healthy.

By and large, musl avoids needless compelling allocation, and also has no compelling allowance whatever in code paths where revealing breakdown towards person is absolutely not possible.

Simple deployment

musl’s MIT permit is compatible with all FOSS certificates, static-linking-friendly, and makes retail need painless. Binaries statically linked with musl have no outside dependencies, even for properties like DNS lookups or character established conversion rates which are used with powerful running on glibc. A credit card applicatoin may generally be implemented as an individual binary data and run-on any equipment making use of the suitable direction arranged buildings and Linux kernel or Linux syscall ABI emulation coating.

Top-notch assistance for UTF-8/multilingual copy

From before musl am musl, treating all article as UTF-8, and remedy for non-ASCII people as first-rate, is a heart requirement. No external area data or sales components are required to plan UTF-8 or query qualities of haphazard Unicode people. Actually musl’s getopt let arbitrary Unicode characters to be utilized as possibilities.

DNS service for non-ASCII domains (IDN) just total yet but could be reinforced sooner or later.

Localization functionality, an appropriate but various issue, is presently minimal but targeted for key modifications.


Making use of the musl-gcc (or musl-clang ) wrapper sent with musl resource, possibly on x86 Linux and various other popular archs to evaluate musl and build easy C software by repurposing your computer’s established glibc-based toolchain. Additional advanced consumption concerning libraries or C++, nevertheless, a passionate mix toolchain or designing in a musl-based submission is usually recommended. Facts can be found throughout the area wiki’s Getting Started page.

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